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Glossary

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Tetralogy of Fallot: A heart condition that is present at birth, and often is called a congenital heart defect. This defect changes the normal flow of blood through the heart. Tetralogy of Fallot is a combination of four defects: (1) a hole in the wall between the ventricles (two lower chambers of the heart), called a ventricular septal defect, (2) narrowing of the tube that carries blood from the heart to the lungs, called pulmonary stenosis, (3) the aorta (the tube that carries oxygen-rich blood to the body) grows from both ventricles, rather than from the left ventricle only, and (4) a thickened muscular wall of the right ventricle, called right ventricular hypertrophy.

Time trend: Monitoring change over time.

Toxic Release Inventory (TRI): EPA’s list of more than 600 designated chemicals that threaten health and the environment. Authorized under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986, this system requires manufacturers to report releases of these chemicals to EPA and State governments. EPA compiles the data in an online, publicly accessible national computerized database.

Toxin: A substance that is harmful to the body or environment.

Transposition of the great arteries (Vessels): A heart condition that is present at birth, and often is called a congenital heart defect. Transposition of the great arteries occurs when the two main arteries going out of the heart, the pulmonary artery and the aorta, are switched in position, or "transposed".

 

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Upper limb reduction defects: Upper limb reduction defects occur when a part of or the entire arm (upper limb) of a fetus fails to form completely during pregnancy. The defect is referred to as a "limb reduction" because a limb is reduced from its normal size or is missing.

Vital statistics: Data derived from certificates and reports of birth, death, fetal death, induced termination of pregnancy, marriage, and related reports.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs): Substances containing carbon and various proportions of other elements, such as hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, sulfur, and nitrogen, these substances easily become vapors or gases. VOCs are commonly found in gasoline, solvents (paint thinners, lacquer thinner, degreasers, and dry cleaning fluids), oil-based paints and inks, and consumer products, such as aerosol spray products. VOCs react with nitrogen oxides, sunlight, and heat to form ozone. Many VOCs are considered air toxics.

 

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Water distribution system: A network of pipes leading from a treatment plant to customers' plumbing systems.

Water sample: The water that is analyzed for the presence of EPA-regulated drinking water contaminants. Depending on the regulation, EPA requires water systems and states to take samples from source water, from water leaving the treatment facility, or from the taps of selected consumers.

Water well: A hole drilled or bored into the earth to get water.

Watershed: The land area from which water drains into a stream, river, or reservoir.

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New Hampshire Environmental Public
Health Tracking Program
NH Department of Health and Human Services,
Division of Public Health Services
29 Hazen Drive  |  Concord, NH 03301
(603) 271-4988  |  (800) 852-3345 ext.4988